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The gage repeatability and reproducibility (GRR) study is a procedure for determining the repeatability of a test instrument and the reproducibility of a specific gage in operation. This article reviews the general method of GRR studies and its application for indentation hardness testing. It describes a long method and a short method for evaluation of GRR. The article analyzes factors of hardness testing instruments and provides guidelines for hardness tests. It concludes with a list of suggestions that can improve hardness tests.

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Edward L. Tobolski, Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility in Hardness Testing, Mechanical Testing and Evaluation, Vol 8, ASM Handbook, Edited By Howard Kuhn, Dana Medlin, ASM International, 2000, p 278–281,

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