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Forming processes can be divided into three major categories: bulk forming, sheet-metal forming, and semisolid forming and polymer extrusion. This article introduces each process category with a description of the constitutive models. It outlines the required properties for process modeling and describes the test methods for determining these properties. The article discusses several compression tests used to determine stress-strain curves for bulk forming and tensile tests used to obtain stress-strain curves for sheet-metal forming. The article concludes with information on the measurement of viscosity of semisolid alloy materials by using three types of viscometers: the coaxial cylinder viscometer, the cone-and-plate viscometer, and the capillary viscometer.

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Dan Zhao, Testing for Deformation Modeling, Mechanical Testing and Evaluation, Vol 8, ASM Handbook, Edited By Howard Kuhn, Dana Medlin, ASM International, 2000, p 798–810,

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