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The main objective for the study of combined-stress fatigue is to obtain fatigue data for axles and to find the criterion for fatigue limit under combined stress. This article begins with a description of the stress states of combined stress and stress fields near crack tips. It provides an account of the various biaxial and multiaxial fatigue testing methods, specimen geometries, and stress intensity factors important in the study multiaxial fatigue. Widely used test methods are the torsion-rotating bending fatigue test and biaxial and triaxial fatigue tests. Common specimen geometries include rectangular plate specimens, cruciform specimens, compact tension shear specimens, compact shear specimens, mode II crack growth specimen, circumferentially notched cylindrical specimens, tubular specimens containing a slit, and solid cylindrical specimens containing a small hole or initial crack.

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