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This article presents effective stress equations that are based on the von Mises criterion, the Tresca criterion, and the Huddleston criterion. It describes the calculation of effective stresses for different cases: elastic stresses, steady-state creep stresses, stresses in a fully plastic case, and thermal stresses in a tube. The article illustrates the comparison of life predictions by the stress criteria and presents a simple mean diameter hoop stress equation, which is used for designing components. It also provides information on the multiaxial creep ductility of tubular components and multiaxial testing methods.

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