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This article provides a practical reference guide for instrumented indentation testing (IIT). It summarizes the various types of indenters used in IIT and parameters describing their geometries. The article discusses the physical principles and models used to determine hardness and elastic modulus from indentation load displacement data. Indentation deformation can be time-dependent, with the extent and nature of the time dependence strongly influenced by temperature. The article examines the methods for probing and characterizing the time-dependent phenomena. It also emphasizes the better-developed measurement techniques and procedures and calibrations required to obtain accurate and meaningful measurements.

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J.L. Hay, G.M. Pharr, 2000. "Instrumented Indentation Testing", Mechanical Testing and Evaluation, Howard Kuhn, Dana Medlin

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