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A characteristic feature of bending is the inhomogeneous (nonuniform) nature of the deformation. Therefore, in a bent specimen, the strain and stress at a given point are dependent on the location of the point with respect to the neutral axis of the cross-sectional area of the specimen. This article discusses the stress-strain relationships, strain curvature, and stress-moment equations for elastic, noncylindrical, elastic-plastic, and pure plastic bending conditions. It also reviews the distribution of residual stress and springback.

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