Mechanical Testing and Evaluation
Creep and Stress-Relaxation Testing
This article provides the theoretical background for understanding many of the physical processes relevant to mechanical testing methods, experimental results, and analytical approaches described in this volume.
Creep deformation is normally studied by applying either a constant load or a constant true stress to a material at a sufficiently high homologous temperature so that a measurable amount of creep strain occurs in a reasonable time. This article provides the phenomenological descriptions of creep and explains the testing and mechanism of creep in crystalline solids. It also presents information on the creep response of crystalline and amorphous solids.
This article reviews the basic equipment and methods for creep and creep rupture testing. It begins with a discussion on the creep properties, including stress and temperature dependence, as well as of the extrapolation techniques that permit estimation of the long-term creep and rupture strengths of materials. The article describes the different types of equipment for determination of creep characteristics, including test stands, furnaces, and extensometers. It also discusses the different testing methods for creep rupture: constant-load testing and constant-stress testing. The article presents other testing considerations and concludes with information on stress relaxation testing.