Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection
Metals can react chemically with oxygen when exposed to air. Essential to an understanding of the gaseous corrosion of a metal are the crystal structure and the molar volume of the metal on which the oxide builds, both of which may affect growth stresses in the oxide. This article presents crystal structures and thermal properties of pure metals and oxides in a tabular form. The free energy of reaction, which describes the oxidation process of a pure divalent metal, is presented. The article illustrates the Richardson-Jeffes diagram, which is used in the determination of the standard Gibbs energy change of formation of oxides and the corresponding dissociation pressures of the oxides as a function of temperature. It demonstrates the Kellogg diagram which shows stability range in more complicated multioxidant systems. The article explains the determination of partial pressures of gas mixtures and partial pressures of volatile oxidation products.