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This article examines the characteristics and behavior of scale produced by various types of oxidation. The basic models, concepts, processes, and open questions for high-temperature gaseous corrosion are presented. The article describes the development of geometrically induced growth stresses, transformation stresses, and thermal stresses in oxide scales. It discusses the ways in which stresses can be relieved. The article provides information on catastrophic oxidation, internal oxidation, sulfidation, alloy oxidation, selective oxidation, and concurrent oxidation. It illustrates the relationships between scale morphologies on binary alloys and concludes with a discussion on metal dusting and chlorine corrosion.

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Marek Danielewski, Gaseous Corrosion Mechanisms, Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection, Vol 13A, ASM Handbook, Edited By Stephen D. Cramer, Bernard S. Covino, Jr., ASM International, 2003, p 106–114,

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