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The ferrous metals are the most significant class of commercial alloys. This article describes the solidification structures of plain carbon steel, low-alloy steel, high-alloy steel, and cast iron, with illustrations. The formation of nonmetallic inclusions in the liquid before and during solidification is also discussed.

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Doru M. Stefanescu, Roxana Ruxanda, Solidification Structures of Steels and Cast Irons, Metallography and Microstructures, Vol 9, ASM Handbook, Edited By George F. Vander Voort, ASM International, 2004, p 97–106,

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