This article describes the mechanisms involved in creating texture for various metal-fabrication processes, namely, solidification, deformation, recrystallization and grain growth, thin-film deposition, and imposition of external magnetic fields. It discusses two experimental and analytical approaches for experimental determination of texture: one using classical diffraction and pole figure measurement techniques and the other using individual orientation measurements. The article also provides information on microtexture, grain-boundary character, and texture gradients. It concludes with information on texture evolution through modeling.
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