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This article describes the fundamentals of titanium metallographic sample preparation. Representative micrographs are presented for each class of titanium alloys, including unalloyed titanium, alpha alloys, alpha-beta alloys, and beta titanium alloys. The article provides information on the macroexamination and microexamination for these alloys. It concludes with a discussion on the several metallographic techniques developed for specific purposes, such as recrystallization studies and microstructure/fracture topography correlations.

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Luther M. Gammon, Robert D. Briggs, John M. Packard, Kurt W. Batson, Rodney Boyer, Charles W. Domby, Metallography and Microstructures of Titanium and Its Alloys, Metallography and Microstructures, Vol 9, ASM Handbook, Edited By George F. Vander Voort, ASM International, 2004, p 899–917,

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