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This article describes various procedures used in the metallographic preparation of niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten alloys. It provides information on sectioning, grinding, mounting, polishing, and electrolytic etching as well as alternate procedures that have been used on refractory metals. The article presents and analyzes several micrographs, provides etchant formulas for various materials, and discusses the unique characteristics of rhenium and its alloys.

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Metallography and Microstructures of Refractory Metals and Alloys, Metallography and Microstructures, Vol 9, ASM Handbook, Edited By George F. Vander Voort, ASM International, 2004, p 877–888,

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