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Voids in fiber-reinforced composite materials are areas that are absent of the composite components: matrix (resin) and fibers. Voids have many causes but generally can be categorized as voids due to volatiles or as voids that result from entrapped air. This article describes the analysis of various types of voids. It reviews techniques for analysis of voids at ply-drops, voids due to high fiber packing, and voids that occur in honeycomb core composites. The final section of the article discusses void documentation through the use of nondestructive inspection techniques and density/specific gravity measurement methods.

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Brian S. Hayes, Luther M. Gammon, 2004. "Void Analysis of Composite Materials", Metallography and Microstructures, George F. Vander Voort

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