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This article describes the microstructure of copper alloys, including copper-zinc (brasses), bronzes, copper-nickel, and copper-nickel-zinc, and examines the effect of oxygen content on alloy phases observed in different product forms. The article also discusses inclusions, etchants, and the effect of composition and processing on grain structure and growth rates.

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R.N. Caron, R.G. Barth, D.E. Tyler, Metallography and Microstructures of Copper and Its Alloys, Metallography and Microstructures, Vol 9, ASM Handbook, Edited By George F. Vander Voort, ASM International, 2004, p 775–788,

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