Modeling and Simulation of the Forming of Aluminum Sheet Alloys
This article discusses the numerical simulation of the forming of aluminum alloy sheet metals. The macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the plastic behavior of aluminum alloys are reviewed. The article presents constitutive equations suitable for the description of aluminum alloy sheets. It explains testing procedures and analysis methods that are used to measure the relevant data needed to identify the material coefficients. The article describes the various formulations of finite element methods used in sheet metal forming process simulations. Stress-integration procedures for both continuum and crystal-plasticity mechanics are also discussed. The article also provides various examples that illustrate the simulation of aluminum sheet forming.