Shot peen forming is a manufacturing process in which local compressive residual stresses form thin sheet metals and structural components in one or more dimensions. This article discusses the principle of the process with an emphasis on fundamental mechanisms. It presents the basic considerations in the simulation of shot peen forming and provides information on single impact and multiple-impact peening simulations. The article describes the equipment and tooling used in the process. It also analyzes the influence of process parameters on shot peen forming and illustrates possible shapes and contours, which are producible by shot peen forming. The article concludes with a table that presents typical peen forming applications in the aircraft and aerospace industries.