Sheet Forming of Specific Metals
This article reviews the selection and formability characteristics of steels, with an emphasis on low-carbon steels and some coverage on the forming of high-carbon steels. It describes the key factors that affect the formability of steels in terms of steelmaking practices, surface finishes, metal thicknesses, and alloying. The article explains the bending and forming operations with some examples. It also describes the formation of various shells, including doubly contoured shells, deep recessed shells, and deep circular shells.
This article provides information on the classification of high-strength steels (HSS) and advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) and tabulates designation of HSS and AHSS as recommended by the American Iron and Steel Institute. It reviews the major grades of HSS and AHSS that are used or will potentially be used in industrial applications. The article discusses different stamping issues such as edge cracking and springback, encountered during forming of AHSS, and lists guidelines for reducing springback in stamped components. It concludes with a discussion on the major advantages and disadvantages of using HSS and AHSS in automotive applications.