Tooling and Lubrication for Forming of Sheet, Strip, and Plate
This article introduces process factors that influence die wear and lubrication for metal forming operations such as bending, spinning, stretching, deep drawing, and ironing. It discusses the effects of part shape, sheet thickness, tolerance requirements, sheet metal, and lubrication on shallow forming dies. The article describes the wear of material for dies to draw round and square cup-shaped metal parts in a press. It also discusses the effect of process conditions on the shallow forming dies.
This article provides an overview of the interfacial interactions with a lubricant film between a die and a metal, lubricant mechanisms, chemistry, qualification testing, application methods, and property test methods. It focuses on sheet metal-forming operations, although the discussions are relevant to metal-forming operations in general. The article also deals with lubricant selection as influenced by the metal to be formed and particular sheet-metal forming operations. The article also discusses some aspects of microbiology and toxicity in lubricants.