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This article describes grade designations of the various sheet steels used for draw forming. It discusses the specifications associated with most sheet draw forming materials. The article examines the behavior of stress- and strain-based forming limit curve (FLC). It provides a discussion on three separate frictional conditions acting in a draw die. The frictional conditions include the metal passing through a draw bead, the metal clamped in the binder, and the metal sliding across a die radius. The article also explains the basic steps in the vehicle development process. The steps involved in the thought process of direct engineering for formability are also explained. The article places considerable emphasis on the need for the designer to clearly define the die/tooling faces in the computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system before the data are passed on to the construction functions.

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Ed Herman, Daniel J. Schaeffler, Evan J. Vineberg, CAD/CAM and Die Face Design in Sheet Metal Forming, Metalworking: Sheet Forming, Vol 14B, ASM Handbook, Edited By S.L. Semiatin, ASM International, 2006, p 756–765,

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