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This article introduces process factors that influence die wear and lubrication for metal forming operations such as bending, spinning, stretching, deep drawing, and ironing. It discusses the effects of part shape, sheet thickness, tolerance requirements, sheet metal, and lubrication on shallow forming dies. The article describes the wear of material for dies to draw round and square cup-shaped metal parts in a press. It also discusses the effect of process conditions on the shallow forming dies.

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Wear and Lubrication of Sheet-Metal Forming Dies, Metalworking: Sheet Forming, Vol 14B, ASM Handbook, Edited By S.L. Semiatin, ASM International, 2006, p 241–247,

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