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This article discusses the installation of the most commonly used force-monitoring devices, namely, load cells and piezoelectric force sensors. It describes the purpose and operation of commonly used displacement sensors, such as linear variable differential transformers, proximity sensors, photoelectric sensors, and ultrasonic sensors. The article provides information on the sensors used for detecting tool breakages and flaws in parts, the measurement of material flow during sheet metal forming, and lubrication. It also describes the operating stages of machine vision systems used for automated quality-control purposes. The theory of eddy-current-based material properties evaluation is also discussed.

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