Compared to cold-formed parts, age-formed parts have lower residual stresses and consequently better stress corrosion resistance. This article addresses the technical issues that arise in the investigations of creep in precipitate-strengthened materials. The issues addressed help in developing alloys and tempers particularly suited for the age-forming process. The different steps involved in the program for predicting the final part shape are discussed. These basic steps involve developing mechanical tests to study creep at low temperatures and low stresses, describing low-temperature creep in terms of a constitutive model, and then using the constitutive model in a process model or finite element analysis to predict the final part shape.
Jacob A. Kallivayalil, Age Forming, Metalworking: Sheet Forming, Vol 14B, ASM Handbook, Edited By S.L. Semiatin, ASM International, 2006, p 438–441, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005133
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