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This article reviews the selection and formability characteristics of steels, with an emphasis on low-carbon steels and some coverage on the forming of high-carbon steels. It describes the key factors that affect the formability of steels in terms of steelmaking practices, surface finishes, metal thicknesses, and alloying. The article explains the bending and forming operations with some examples. It also describes the formation of various shells, including doubly contoured shells, deep recessed shells, and deep circular shells.

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Mahmoud Y. Demeri, Steve Lampman, Forming of Carbon Steels, Metalworking: Sheet Forming, Vol 14B, ASM Handbook, Edited By S.L. Semiatin, ASM International, 2006, p 495–529,

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