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Hardness conversions are empirical relationships that are defined by conversion tables limited to specific categories of materials. This article tabulates examples of the published hardness conversion equations for various materials including steels, cement carbides, and white cast irons. It informs that when making hardness correlations, it is best to consult ASTM E 140. The article tabulates the approximate Rockwell B hardness and Rockwell C hardness conversion numbers for nonaustenitic steels according to ASTM E 140. It also tabulates the approximate equivalent hardness numbers for Brinell hardness numbers and Vickers (diamond pyramid) hardness numbers for steel.

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Steel Hardness Conversions, Metalworking: Sheet Forming, Vol 14B, ASM Handbook, Edited By S.L. Semiatin, ASM International, 2006, p 892–897,

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