Constitutive relations for metal-working include elements of behavior at ambient temperature as well as high-temperature response. This article presents the equations for the strain hardening and strain-rate-sensitive flow, with alternate sections on empirically determined properties, followed by models of constitutive behavior. These models include the isothermal constitutive model and the physical model for superplastic flow. A formal description of the superposition of the operative mechanisms for dynamic recovery at hot-working strain rates is also provided. The article describes creep mechanisms that are useful for illustrating the strong stress dependence of dislocation and diffusional flow.
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