This article illustrates the mechanics of the deep drawing of a cylindrical cup. It discusses the fundamentals of drawing and drawability. Sheet metal is drawn in either hydraulic or mechanical presses. The article summarizes the defects in drawing and factors considered in press selection for drawing. It explains the types of dies used for drawing sheet metal and the effects of process variables and material variables on deep drawing. The process variables that affect the success or failure of a deep-drawing operation include the punch and die radii, punch-to-die clearance, press speed, lubrication, and type of restraint of metal flow used. The article describes the process of redrawing and ironing of metals. Drawing of workpieces with flanges and drawing of hemispheres are also illustrated. The article also provides information on the reducing of drawn shells, methods for expanding portions of drawn workpieces, trimming, and deep drawing using fluid-forming presses.
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