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Bending is a common metalworking operation to create localized deformation in sheets (or blanks), plates, sections, tubes, and wires. This article emphasizes on the bending of sheet metal along with some coverage on flanging. It informs that variations in the bending stresses cause springback after bending, and discusses the variables and their effects on springback, as well as the methods to overcome or counteract them. These methods include overbending, bottoming or setting, and stretch bending. The article provides information on elastic bending, non-cylindrical bending, elastic-plastic bending, and pure plastic bending. Sheet metal bendability is a critical factor in many forming operations. The article illustrates the derivation of two relevant bend-ductility equations.

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Bending of Sheet Metal, Metalworking: Sheet Forming, Vol 14B, ASM Handbook, Edited By S.L. Semiatin, ASM International, 2006, p 295–306,

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