Sheet metal forming operations are so diverse in type, extent, and rate that no single test provides an accurate indication of the formability of a material in all situations. This article presents an overview of types of forming, formability problems, and principal methods of measuring deformation. It reviews the effect of materials properties and temperature on formability. The article provides a detailed discussion on the two major categories of formability tests such as the intrinsic test, including uniaxial tension testing, plane-strain tension testing, biaxial stretch testing, and simulative tests such as bending tests, stretching tests, the Ohio State University test, the drawing test, and stretch-drawing tests. It extends the correlation between simulative tests and materials properties using forming limit diagrams and circle grid analysis, and discusses the improvements to the forming limit diagram technology.
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