This article provides information on the operating principle, tool material and design changes, and safety and protection of various multifunction machines as well as the cutting fluids used. These include single-spindle automatic lathes, manual turret lathes, single-spindle automatic bar and chucking machines, Swiss-type automatic bar machines, multiple-spindle automatic bar and chucking machines, and multiple-spindle vertical chucking machines. The article provides examples that illustrate typical variations in dimensions obtained with a multiple-spindle machine. It also describes the machinability and provides information on the physical condition of the work metal. The article discusses the various factors to be considered in the selection of an appropriate machine. It presents examples that describe the techniques and equipment selected for specific production applications. In addition, the article discusses the types, applications, advantages, and disadvantages of machining centers and transfer machines. Finally, it provides the goals, objectives, and production techniques of flexible manufacturing systems.
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