This article focuses on machines that are designed, constructed, and used for drilling. It provides information on the design, materials, selection, and classification of drill. The article describes drills that are specially designed for hard steel and other specific applications. A variety of drill point styles, such as single-angle points and reduced-rake points, are described. The article discusses the factors considered to obtain expected dimensional accuracy of holes. It explains the determination of the optimum speed and feed for drilling, which depends on the workpiece material, tool material, depth of hole, design of drill, rigidity of setup, tolerance, and cutting fluid. The article illustrates the effects of operating variables on drill life of hardened steel. The advantages, limitations, design considerations, insert configurations, and applications of indexable-insert drills are discussed. The article concludes with a discussion on the requirements to drill small holes that differ from those used in conventional drilling.
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