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The relative motion between the tool and the workpiece during cutting compresses the work material near the tool and induces a shear deformation that forms the chip. This article discusses the fundamental nature of the deformation process associated with machining. It describes the mechanics of the machining process, and presents the principles of the orthogonal cutting model. The article also analyzes the effect of workpiece properties on chip formation.

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J.T. Black, Mechanics of Chip Formation, Machining, Vol 16, ASM Handbook, ASM International, 1989, p 7–12,

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