Grinding, Honing, and Lapping
This article discusses the principles of grinding process. It illustrates a typical wheel-work characteristic chart relating surface finish, wheel wear rate, metal removal rate, and power to the normal force. The article also reviews the effect of variations in work material, wheel specification, wheel speed, coolant, and grinding wheel-work conformity on the slopes of the wheel-work characteristic chart.
Metal is removed from the workpiece by the mechanical action of irregularly shaped abrasive grains in all grinding operations. This article discusses three primary components of grinding wheels, namely, abrasive (the cutting tool), bond (the tool holder), and porosity or air for chip clearance and/or the introduction of coolant. It describes the compositions and applications of coated abrasives and types of grinding fluids, such as petroleum-base and mineral-base cutting oils, water-soluble oils, synthetic fluids, semisynthetic fluids, and water plus additives. The article concludes with information on different types of grinding processes, namely, rough grinding, precision grinding, surface grinding, cylindrical grinding, centerless grinding, internal grinding, and tool grinding.