Thermomechanical processing (TMP) refers to various metal forming processes that involve careful control of thermal and deformation conditions to achieve products with required shape specifications and good properties. This article describes TMP methods in producing hot-rolled steel and reviews how improvements in the strength and toughness depend on the synergistic effect of microalloy additions and on carefully controlled thermomechanical conditions. It discusses TMP variables and the general distinctions between conventional hot rolling and common types of controlled-rolling schedules. The article describes the metallurgical processes in grain refinement of austenite steel by hot working, such as recovery and recrystallization and strain-induced transformation. The grain refinement in high strength low alloy steel by alloy addition is also discussed. The article provides an outline on the key stages of deformation, and the required metallurgical information at each of these stages.