Evaluation of Workability
Plastic deformation can occur in metals from various mechanisms, such as slip, twinning, diffusion creep, grain-boundary sliding, grain rotation, and deformation-induced phase transformations. This article emphasizes on the mechanism of slip and twinning under cold working conditions. It discusses the factors on which the structures developed during plastic deformation depend. These factors include crystal structure, amount of deformation, composition, deformation mode, and deformation temperature and rate. The article illustrates the microstructural features that appear after substantial deformation when revealed through metallographic investigation.
Recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth are microstructural changes that occur during annealing after cold plastic deformation and/or during hot working of metals. This article reviews the structure of the deformed state and describes the changes in the properties and microstructures of a cold-worked metal during recovery stage. It discusses the recrystallization that occurs by the nucleation and growth of grains. The article also reviews the growth behavior of the grains, explaining that the grain growth can be classified into two types: normal or continuous grain growth and abnormal or discontinuous grain growth. It also examines the key mechanisms that control microstructure evolution during hot working and subsequent heat treatment. These include dynamic recovery, dynamic recrystallization, metadynamic recrystallization, static recovery, static recrystallization, and grain growth.