This article focuses on the effects of mechanical plasticity on workability; that is, process control of localized stress and strain conditions to enhance workability. It describes the nature of local stress and strain states in bulk forming processes, leading to a classification scheme, including testing procedures and specific process measurements, that facilitate the application of workability concepts. Using examples, the article applies these concepts to forging, rolling, and extrusion processes. The stress and strain environments described in the article suggest that a workability test should be capable of subjecting the material to a variety of surface strain combinations. By providing insights on fracture criteria, these tests can be used as tools for troubleshooting fracture problems in existing processes, as well as in the process development for new product designs.
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