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Ribs and bosses are the integral functional elements or features of a forging that project outward from a web in a direction parallel to the ram stroke. This article describes the design, functions, and producibility of ribs and bosses. It relates their design to grain flow, metallurgical structure, measurement details, and design parameters, with supplementary data obtained from the examples of actual forgings.

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Forging Design Involving Ribs and Bosses, Metalworking: Bulk Forming, Vol 14A, ASM Handbook, Edited By S.L. Semiatin, ASM International, 2005, p 741–758,

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