Open-die forging can be distinguished from most other types of deformation processes in that it provides discontinuous material flow as opposed to continuous flow. This article describes the equipment and auxiliary tools used in open-die forging. It discusses the production and practice of open-die forging, with some practical examples. The article illustrates macrosegregation in a large steel ingot and lists the forgeable alloys. It reviews the physical and mathematical models used in deformation modeling. The article explains the contour forging and roll planishing process. It inform that to ensure that forgings can be machined to correct final measurements, it is necessary to establish allowances, tolerances, and specifications for flatness and concentricity. The article also tabulates the allowances and tolerances for as-forged shafts and bars.
Open-Die Forging, Metalworking: Bulk Forming, Vol 14A, ASM Handbook, Edited By S.L. Semiatin, ASM International, 2005, p 99–110, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
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