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Plastic deformation can occur in metals from various mechanisms, such as slip, twinning, diffusion creep, grain-boundary sliding, grain rotation, and deformation-induced phase transformations. This article emphasizes on the mechanism of slip and twinning under cold working conditions. It discusses the factors on which the structures developed during plastic deformation depend. These factors include crystal structure, amount of deformation, composition, deformation mode, and deformation temperature and rate. The article illustrates the microstructural features that appear after substantial deformation when revealed through metallographic investigation.

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Plastic Deformation Structures, Metalworking: Bulk Forming, Vol 14A, ASM Handbook, Edited By S.L. Semiatin, ASM International, 2005, p 539–551,

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