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This article focuses on the forging characteristics of different types of refractory metals and alloys, namely, niobium and niobium alloys, molybdenum and molybdenum alloys, tantalum and tantalum alloys, and tungsten and tungsten alloys.

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John A. Shields, Jr., Kurt D. Moser, R. William Buckman, Jr., Todd Leonhardt, C. Craig Wojcik, Forging of Refractory Metals, Metalworking: Bulk Forming, Vol 14A, ASM Handbook, Edited By S.L. Semiatin, ASM International, 2005, p 284–285,

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