Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination


The systematic study of microstructural evolution during deformation under hot working conditions is important in controlling processing variables to achieve dimensional accuracy. This article explains the microstructural features that need to be modeled and provides an outline of the principles and achievements of each of the various microstructural models, including black-box modeling, gray-box modeling, white-box modeling, and hybrid modeling.

You do not currently have access to this chapter.
Don't already have an account? Register
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal