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The systematic study of microstructural evolution during deformation under hot working conditions is important in controlling processing variables to achieve dimensional accuracy. This article explains the microstructural features that need to be modeled and provides an outline of the principles and achievements of each of the various microstructural models, including black-box modeling, gray-box modeling, white-box modeling, and hybrid modeling.

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J.H. Beynon, C.M. Sellars, 2005. "Models for Predicting Microstructural Evolution", Metalworking: Bulk Forming, S.L. Semiatin

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