This article addresses dies and die materials used for hot forging in vertical presses, hammers, and horizontal forging machines (upsetters). It reviews the properties of die materials for hot forging, including good hardenability, resistance to wear, plastic deformation, thermal fatigue, and mechanical fatigue. The article describes heat treating practices commonly employed for chromium- and tungsten-base AISI hot-work tool steels. It discusses the fabrication of impression dies, and the advantages and disadvantages of cast dies. The article concludes with a discussion on the factors that affect die life and safety precautions to be considered during die construction.
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