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This article provides a summary of the overall development of the finite element method (FEM) and its contribution to the materials forming industry. It presents an overview of FEM methodologies and applications in the order of their usage in typical manufacturing (bulk forming process) process sequence: primary materials processing, hot forging and cold forming, and product assembly. The article discusses the material fracture and dies stress analysis and presents the optimization techniques used in 2-D and 3-D preform die design.

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Soo-Ik Oh, John Walters, Wei-Tsu Wu, 2005. "Finite Element Method Applications in Bulk Forming", Metalworking: Bulk Forming, S.L. Semiatin

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