Forging Design Involving Draft
This article schematically illustrates the basic types of drafts used in forging design, including outside draft, inside draft, blend draft, natural draft, shift draft, and back draft. The amount of draft, or the draft angle, is designated in degrees and is measured from the axis of a hammer or press stroke. The article illustrates the measurement of draft angle by describing the designs of forgings produced in equipment with vertical and horizontal rams. The use of excessive amounts of draft usually results in an increase in overall cost. The article describes various alternatives for reducing or eliminating draft. It provides a checklist citing major items that should be coordinated with a designer's review of draft.
Forging Design Involving Draft, Metalworking: Bulk Forming, Vol 14A, ASM Handbook, Edited By S.L. Semiatin, ASM International, 2005, p 727–740, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004034
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