Titanium alloys are forged into a variety of shapes and types of forgings, with a broad range of final part forging design criteria based on the intended end-product application. This article begins with a discussion on the classes of titanium alloys, their forgeability, and factors affecting forgeability. It describes the forging techniques, equipment, and common processing elements associated with titanium alloy forging. The processing elements include the preparation of forging stock, preheating of the stock, die heating, lubrication, forging process, trimming and repair, cleaning, heat treatment, and inspection. The article presents a discussion on titanium alloy precision forgings and concludes with information on the forging of advanced titanium materials and titanium aluminides.
G.W. Kuhlman, Forging of Titanium Alloys, Metalworking: Bulk Forming, Vol 14A, ASM Handbook, Edited By S.L. Semiatin, ASM International, 2005, p 331–353, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
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