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This article describes the mechanics and processing characteristics of equal-channel angular extrusion (ECAE). Tool design considerations for the ECAE are discussed. During ECAE, severe plastic strains and simple shear deformation mode contribute to strong, sometimes unusual effects of processing on structure and properties. The article explains these effects and concludes with a discussion on the applications of the ECAE.

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Vladimir Segal, Equal-Channel Angular Extrusion, Metalworking: Bulk Forming, Vol 14A, ASM Handbook, Edited By S.L. Semiatin, ASM International, 2005, p 528–536,

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