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Hammers and high-energy-rate forging machines are classified as energy-restricted machines as they deform the workpiece by the kinetic energy of the hammer ram. This article provides information on gravity-drop hammers, power-drop hammers, die forger hammers, counterblow hammers, and computer-controlled hammers. It describes the three basic designs of high-energy-rate forging (HERF) machines: the ram and inner frame, two-ram, and controlled energy flow. The article reviews forging mechanical presses, hydraulic presses, drive presses, screw presses, and multiple-ram presses.

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Taylan Altan, Manas Shirgaokar, 2005. "Hammers and Presses for Forging", Metalworking: Bulk Forming, S.L. Semiatin

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