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Forging of nickel-base alloys results in geometries that reduce the amount of machining to obtain final component shapes and involves deformation processing to refine the grain structure of components or mill products. This article discusses the heating practice, die materials, and lubricants used in nickel-base alloys forging. It describes two major forging processing categories for nickel-base alloys: primary working and secondary working categories. Primary working involves the deformation processing and conversion of cast ingot or similar bulk material into a controlled microstructure mill product, such as billets or bars, and secondary working refers to further forging of mill product into final component configurations.

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D.U. Furrer, S.L. Semiatin, Forging of Nickel-Base Alloys, Metalworking: Bulk Forming, Vol 14A, ASM Handbook, Edited By S.L. Semiatin, ASM International, 2005, p 324–330,

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