Forging of Steels and Heat-Resistant Alloys
This article focuses on the forging behavior and practices of carbon and alloy steels. It presents general guidelines for forging in terms of practices, steel selection, forgeability and mechanical properties, heat treatments of steel forgings, die design features, and machining. The article discusses the effect of forging on final component properties and presents special considerations for the design of hot upset forgings.
Stainless steels, based on forging pressure and load requirements, are more difficult to forge because of the greater strength at elevated temperatures and the limitations on the maximum temperatures at which stainless steels can be forged without incurring microstructural damage. This article discusses the forging methods, primary mill practices (primary forging and ingot breakdown), trimming, and cleaning operations of stainless steels. It describes the use of forging equipment, dies, and die material in the forging operation. The article provides an overview of the forgeability of austenitic stainless steels, martensitic stainless steels, precipitation-hardening stainless steels, and ferritic stainless steels. It concludes with a discussion on the heating and lubrication of dies.